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Senin, 01 Desember 2008

Why we have to apply need to apply Problem Based Learning approach in developing Mathematics Learning ?

Applying of method problem based learning is not only increase the result of learning but also supplies educative participant empirically learning finalizes problem according to Iesson matter self-supportingly. Hence researcher formulates purpose of applying of problem based learning as follows:
1) To draw near the students at study of mathematics with development of situation of real world.
2) Can assist the students to develop idea and skilled thought in stall to obtain life efficiency ( life skill).
3) Places student as subject and study object.
Problem Based Learning designed to develop:
1. Ability integrates ( federating) knowledge owned, then bases special knowledge context
2. Ability takes decision at the same time develops critical position and idea
3. Self-supporting ability to learn and heartens to learn along the life
4. Efficiency interpersonal, kolaborasi, and communications
5. construction of His own cognate structure and skillful evaluates
6. Behavior and ethics which professional
( Teacher & Educational Development, University of New Mexico School of Medicine ( 2002: 2-3).
Applying of problem based learning ( get started) started with:
1. Recognition of problem based learning at instructor
2. Specifies applying rule of the game of problem based learning. This research applies interacti on type between groups ( group interaction). educative Tutor and participant cooperated develops study.
3. Specifies hope or purpose of applying of problem based learning to increase ability thinks is logical and positive position of student to mathematics.
After problem presented at educative participant, hence study takes place in process of tutorial. Teacher stands as tutor. One problems in debate by some groups. Tutor called as also instructor, moderator, fasilitator, or leader. Tutor comes from educator. Tutor responsible assists group of identifying performance mistake, digressing opinion, motivates member of group of communicating, and is each other evaluates result of job(activity step by step. Tutor prepares balmy space to process study ( Harsono, 2004: 26-29).
The role of tutor in process of problem based learning is:
1. Process controller
a. Acted as doorman and time custodian.
b. As officer without dropping sanction to educative participant.
c. Interference if there is conflict among educative participant.
d. Pushs the happening of balmy situation that to execute of group dynamics.
2. Observer behavior of group
a. Pushs the happening of interaction of group, bravery, and approval.
b. Pushs educative participant to develop individual quality.
c. Assists educative participant to involve ability and realizes their weakness.
d. Pushs educative participant as evolution agent in group
e. Acts as role model.
3. Problem billows
a. Pushs the happening of active participation, concentration of attention, and discussion is more life.
b. Reexamines all result of discussion, returns question of educative participant to be replied x'self by them, gives comment and suggestion, and stimulates to think for example trying to develop hypothesis.
c. Pushs educative participant to study and defines again explanation of the, makes rapport or concept bearing, process etcetera.
d. Pushs educative participant to analyse, makes synthesis and evaluation about problem or data, and summarizes result of discussion.
e. Assists educative participant in the case of identification source and learning matter. ( Harsono, 2004: 31-32)

Educative Teacher activity and participant in tutorial as follows:
1. Educative Participant Activity
a. Identifies knowledge and efficiency owned.
b. Identifies problem and digs relevant sources of information.
c. Investigates and interpretation of information which collected.
d. Learning self-supportingly ( self-directed learning) ( Harsono, 2004: 35-42)
e. Prioritizes some alternative of problem dissolutions.
f. Integrates, opinion to select dissolution of problem.
( Cindy L. Lynch, Susan K. Wolcott, and Gregory E Huber, 2001: 2-5)
g. reflection of X'self ( Teacher & Education Development, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2002: 26 & 29).
Educative participant activity ( a, b, c, e, and f) refers to " steps for better thinking: a developmental problem solving process" from Cindy L. Lynch, Susan K. Wolcott, and Gregory E Huber).
2. Teacher Activity as Tutor
a. Makes study centrally at educative participant.
b. Area design motivating educative participant to learn.
c. Leads the time and process tutorial.
d. Applies effective question.
e. Arranges group dynamics.
f. Provides constructive feedback.
( University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2002: 1-35)
g. Evaluation result of educative participant learning at cognate domain.


References

Don Woods (1997). Problem-based Learning, especially in the context of large classes. Matter is accessed on 14 Augusts 2008, from http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm
Dairy Advisory Teams (1998). Problem Solving and Action Planning. Matter is accessed on 12 June 2008, from http://www.das.psu.edu/das/dairy/teams/problem-solving
Duch, B., Groh, S. and Allen, D. (2001). 'Why Problem-Based Learning?' in The Power of Problem-Based Learning, Duch, B., Groh, S. and Allen, D. (eds), Stylus, Virginia. Matter is accessed on 14 Augusts 2008, from http://www.paulhazel.com/docs/pbl.htm
Harsono. (2004). Pengantar Problem Based Learning. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran UGM.
Lynch, Wolcott. (2001). Helping Your Students Develop Critical Thinking Skills. Matter is accessed on 15 Augusts 2008, from http://www.idea.ksu.edu/papers/Idea_Paper_37.pdf.
Teaching with Technology Initiative. (2002). Problem-Based Learning. Matter is accessed on 15 Augusts 2008, from http://twt/pbl/45/htm.

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